Signs and symptoms of flat feet (pes planus).

Flat Feet (Pes Planus)

Flat feet or pes planus is a condition whereby the arch along the inside of the foot is lowered or lost, causing the feet and ankle to roll inwards. It is commonly described as “pronated feet” or “excessive pronation”. Most individuals with flat feet would have gotten the condition at a young age, known as paediatric flat feet. However, an adult can also develop flat feet due to a condition called posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).

Signs and symptoms of Achilles Tendonitis (Heel Pain).

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles tendonitis is a common condition of heel pain caused by the inflammation of the Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in our body and connects our calf muscles (tricep surae) to the back of the heel bone. The function of the Achilles tendon is to plantarflex our ankle joint, and allow us to push off during walking, running, or jumping. Achilles tendonitis is often misdiagnosed as plantar fasciitis because of its similarities in the symptoms.

There are 2 forms of Achilles tendonitis – mid-portion tendonitis and insertional tendonitis.

Mid-portion Achilles tendonitis occurs in the midsection of the tendon, typically more than 2cm away from the back of the heel bone. Insertional Achilles tendonitis occurs at the junction where the tendon attaches to the back of the heel bone.

Signs and Symptoms of Plantar Fasciitis (Heel Pain).

Plantar Fasciitis (Heel Pain) Treatment

Plantar fasciitis is the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of connective tissue that connects our heel bone to the ball of our foot (forefoot). Plantar fasciitis typically causes sharp stabbing heel pain, especially in the morning. It can occur from a sudden high-impact activity or long-term overuse. It is common for individuals to ignore the heel pain at its initial stages and only seek help months later.

Plantar fasciitis is diagnosed based on the presenting symptoms and also through diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Imaging is essential to rule out any plantar fascia tears, which many are undetected.