Ankle

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) or known as Adult Acquired Flat Foot is a progressive flat foot condition that causes pain in the ankles or the arch. It is due to inflammation, tear, or degeneration of the Posterior Tibialis Tendon. This tendon runs from the back of our lower leg and attaches to the navicular bone, and it is responsible for supporting and raising our arch when we stand or walk.

Patients with PTTD will experience pain and swelling along the inner side of the ankle or the arch region during standing or walking. They will also have trouble standing on their toes or balancing on one foot. The condition can progress to developing severe flat foot deformity if left untreated.

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (Shin Splints)

Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as shin splints, is a condition that causes pain along the inner side of the tibia (shinbone), particularly nearer to the ankle. This condition commonly affects runners and patient often reports throbbing pain or ache during runs.

Chronic Ankle Sprain

Chronic ankle sprain, also known as chronic ankle instability, occurs due to an inadequate treatment method during the acute ankle sprain phase. It is characterized by feeling “loose” in the ankle and recurrent ankle sprain. Patients often complain that they will twist their ankles every now and then.

Acute Ankle Sprain

One of the most common injuries in the ankle is an acute ankle sprain. It occurs when the ankle is forcefully stretched beyond its normal range of motion. The patient’s ankle becomes swollen, and painful, and is difficult to put weight on that ankle. Ankle sprains often happen during sports such as basketball or badminton, and when running or hiking on uneven grounds.